Blida Department of English: Free Stand to Stand Free
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The Harvard System of Referencing

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The Harvard System of Referencing

Post by bilinda on Wed Aug 01, 2012 7:13 pm

What is referencing: when you use the words of someone else in your work, you must give credit to the original source as a sign of an aknowlegment of indebtedness. The original sources that you used can be found in what we call the bibliography( it includes all the books that helped you in your work). In reference we have the three Cs: correct, complete and consistent ( to use the same way of referencing in the whole thesis or work).

The importance of referencing: simply, to avoid plagiarism. The latter can happen not only when you directly copy other writer's words.It also happens when you paraphrase the ideas of someone else without mentioning the source. Another reason that makes referencing an important thing to do is that it shows the readers that your work has been supported by the opinions and the comments of more specialized ppl.

I start by books: for books you need the following: the author's name. the year the book was published. the title of the book. the city the book was published in: the name of the publisher.

e.g: Chellahi, H. (2030). Women: life and style. New York: Random house.

let's see each part alone and its variations:

*the author's name:
- a book with one author: the surname, INITIALS. = Chellahi, H.
- a book with two authors: Chellahi, H.
& Guettache, A.
- a book with more than two authors: Chellahi, H. et al.
- if the author is unknown you write Anon (abbreviation of anonymous).
- if there is no writer but an editor you write the name of the editor followed by (ed.).: Harazzi, Z. (ed.).
* the date:
you put the date between brackets after the name of the author
e.g: Chellahi, H. (2030).

- if you do not know the date you write: (n.d). or n.d. or
[ No date]. you can also use s.a. ( it is the abbreviation of sine anno which means without a year. pay attention that s.a. is in italics.
e.g: Chellahi, H. n.d.
- if 2 books were published by the same author in the same year you write:
Harrazi, Z. (2032a). the first book.
Harrazi, Z. (2032b). the second book.

to be continued
bilinda
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Re: The Harvard System of Referencing

Post by sassy86 on Wed Aug 01, 2012 8:01 pm

Very useful! Baraka Allah fiki Smile
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Re: The Harvard System of Referencing

Post by sabine on Thu Aug 02, 2012 3:21 pm

Thank you bilinda Smile
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Re: The Harvard System of Referencing

Post by glourious on Fri Aug 03, 2012 4:02 am

as i saw in the viva of Master 2 students the only two sys of referencing were mla and Harvard.
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Re: The Harvard System of Referencing

Post by tellmemore on Fri Aug 03, 2012 9:04 pm

thank you so much dear
may allah bless you
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Re: The Harvard System of Referencing

Post by tellmemore on Fri Aug 03, 2012 9:10 pm

as i saw in the viva of Master 2 students the only two sys of referencing were mla and Harvard.

yes dear Glourious Harvard is the best style when you deal with civilization and literature topics.
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Re: The Harvard System of Referencing

Post by bilinda on Tue Aug 14, 2012 6:23 pm







*Title:

You mus write the title exactly the way it is written including the sub-title. Separate
the title from the sub- title using a colon. Except for the first letter and
proper names, use small initial letters throughout the title. The title must be
written in italics:


Eg: Moral philosophy: a critical introduction.


- If the book is published more than one time mention it.


Eg: Moral philosophy: a critical introduction. 2nd ed.


*The place of publication:


This is the town or the city of publication, and not the country.


*The publisher: simply the name of the publisher.


Journal articles:

What is a journal? A journal is a collection of information written by many scholars.


In case of a journal article you need the following information:


- The authorís name
- The year in which the journal was published
-The title of the article
- The title of the journal ( in italics)
- The page number/s of the article in the
journal.
- The volume and issue numbers if found.


If all the information above are available the convention of referencing will appear as
follows:

The author of the article. (date). Title of the article. Title of the journal,
Vol(issue):page/s, date of the issue.

Eg: Lewis, A.S. (2012). How to write a successful curriculum vitae. Times, 17(120):26-30,
April 24.


Pay attention that the title of the journal is written in italics and not the one of the
article.


Now you may be wondering about the definition of volume and issue:


Volume= the number of years a particular journal has been published (One volume per a
year).
The first year = volume1, second year= volume2 and so on. In the above example
the number of the volume is 17. It means the journal has been published for 17
years.


Issue= in a volume we have many issues. It means in one year we have many publications
since we have said that there is one volume per a year. Imagine that a journal
is in his third year. This would be volume 3. In that volume the first issue is
issue one. In referencing it appears as follows: 3(1). The second issue= 3(2)
and so on. In one volume we can have 365 issues if each day they publish one
issue as we can find one in a volume if only one issue is published in a year.
In
sum, volume is the number of issues in a year.


A journal article with no issue and no volume:

Corablree, S.W. (1987). The 20 best books of 1986. Books and bookmen: 34-36,
December.


Sometimes instead of a month of publication there may be a season:

Bradstreet, A. (2020). How to make a vegetable broth. Times, 7(112):17-18, winter.


A newspaper article:


- The author
- Year of publication

- Title of article
- Title of the newspaper
- The page the article appeared in
- The date of the issue


Eg: Cromwell, S. (2012). Learners and teachers. Cape times: 7, Nov. 17.


In this example Cromwell is the author of the article entitled: learners and teachers.
The
article appears on page 7 in cape times newspaper. 2012 is the year of
publication and November 17 is the date of the issue.


The in-text referencing:


When you take other writerís materials either through direct quoting or through paraphrasing you should place between brackets the name of the author, the date of publication and the number of the
page next to the borrowed idea.


(Name of the author, date:page)


Direct quotation:
is when you copy other authorís work
exactly. The quotation should be placed in inverted commas. You choose between
double inverted commas and single inverted commas. Choose one convention and
follow it consistently. Remember while using direct quotations you have to copy
everything exactly including mistakes. To show the reader that the mistake is
not yours, write (sic) after the error.


Paraphrasing:
this is when you rewrite other ideas using your own words.


Eg:
Direct quote from a book or a journal article

'Most of Shakespeareís characters are true to life characters' (McCarthy, 2007:15).


Or

McCarthy (2007:15) states 'most of Shakespeare characters are true to life
characters'.


Paraphrasing:


Shakespeare tried to create a realistic portrayal of people through his characters
(McCarthy,
2007:15).


In case of
two authors, use the ampersand (&), but only if the whole textual reference
is bracketed.


(Gardner & Smith, 1999:54) but Gardner and Smith (1999:54) state:


BIBLIOGRAPHY:

In Harvard you
classify the reference according to alphabet.
When there is no author file alphabetically according to title.
i hope it will help
bilinda
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Re: The Harvard System of Referencing

Post by sassy86 on Tue Aug 14, 2012 9:03 pm

Baraka Allah fiki Smile
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Re: The Harvard System of Referencing

Post by tellmemore on Sun Aug 19, 2012 2:12 pm

thanks again

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Re: The Harvard System of Referencing

Post by JOKER on Wed Sep 19, 2012 11:36 pm

Bilinda is officially the best teacher ! Smile
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Re: The Harvard System of Referencing

Post by Hope Bridge on Thu Sep 20, 2012 1:53 am

thank u sooo much it really saves ^^

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Re: The Harvard System of Referencing

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