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۩۩۞ Amazigh/Berber kings and history ۞۩۩

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۩۩۞ Amazigh/Berber kings and history ۞۩۩

Post by sassy86 on Wed Jun 13, 2012 9:04 pm

Hi mates Smile This post will be devoted to an important part of our history, Algeria's history and identity (unfortunately not enough spoken of). I'll be posting everything related to the kings and important political figures of Numidia.

The Berbers (or Imazighen) are the native people of North Africa.
Below is a brief list of well-known kings of Numedia ( in modern-day Algeria and a smaller part of western Tunisia in North Africa)












To be continued
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Re: ۩۩۞ Amazigh/Berber kings and history ۞۩۩

Post by sassy86 on Thu Jun 14, 2012 9:01 pm

Hi again mates Smile Before carrying on and entering deeper in historical events, let us have a look at some basic terminologies to better understand this amazing topic


Definition of Berber & Etymology of Imazighen:


The perplexed term 'Berber' is shrouded with mystery, just as the Berbers themselves. Regardless of whether some people like or dislike the use of the term 'Berber', the name had entered the international vocabulary, and therefore it will be used here when writing in English. The matriarchal name 'Tamazight', albeit more popular in its recent masculine and patriarchal form Amazigh, is gradually becoming known to the outside world. This is not to say that there is anything wrong with using the term Berber, just because it was mistakenly associated with Greek barbarous and the negative connotation it conveys; as it existed long before the Greeks and the Romans, and was also used by the Ancient Egyptians and the Berbers long before them. The etymology of the name 'Berber' was altogether misunderstood, and it never meant 'barbaric' or 'savage' Evil or Very Mad , simply because the Romans used it to describe the Ancient Egyptians whom we all know were far more advanced and civilised than
both the Romans and the Greeks.

The etymology of 'Imazighen', namely 'The Free People', also has no etymological basis nor historical foundation, and it was merely a superstitious conjuncture that somehow gained widespread popularity amongst both Berberists and European scholars, probably after it was introduced to them by Berber Leo Africanus without questioning its authority or explaining how it came to have this bizarre etymology. Which part in the term 'Imazighen' that says 'free' and which part that means 'people' remain to be explained. The only etymology that can be concluded, so far, is "nobel", as in Tuareg Tamaheqt majegh ('nobel'). Nobel, they are, no doubt; but free is far from true ! Freedom starts in the mind, then manifests in the real world.

Imazighen is the plural form of the masculine singular Amazigh or Mazigh, while 'Timazighin' is the plural form of the feminine
singular Tamazight. This means that the recent use of the term "Amazigh" to describe a group of people, as in "the Amazigh of Libya" or "the Amazigh of Algeria", is inaccurate because the term is singular; and therefore the correct form to use is the plural "Imazighen", as in "the Imazighen of Libya" -- in the same way one cannot say: "the Berber of Libya" because the correct form to use is "the Berbers of Libya". However, there are instances where one can use the singular form to describe a group, like "the Berber people"; but "the Berber of North Africa" (or "the Amazigh of North Africa")
is also incorrect.

And so the term Berber was used by foreigners, or aliens some would say, while the Berbers call themselves Imazighen or Imushagh; as they came to call Berber language by the name of "Tamazight", (also 'Tamaheqt' or 'Tamasheght', depending on language and dialect).
The popular and masculine form used almost world-wide, namely "Amazigh Language", does not exist, violates the sacred "Tamazight", and is heading towards threatening the very base on which it was founded -- the matriarchal nature of the whole
Berber culture & society. Tamazight by itself means exactly that: 'Berber language'; full stop.

'Tamazgha', meaning the 'land of the Imazighen', namely North Africa, was also invented by activists to describe what the
Berbers have always prescribed as 'Tamort', or 'Thamorth', ('land, village, town, country, earth'). Terms like 'Amazighity', which mixes the English suffix-ty with the Berber noun Amazigh- in a rare percussion, and 'Imazighenautes' ('the Berber geeks of the Internet') give the amusing impression that "things are getting complicated". For some unknown reason, there seems to be an
attempt, not quite sure by whom, to abandon the original matriarchal form of the appellation "Tamazight"
and ultimately all its associated forms.

Some might say this is not bad and should not pose a threat, but one can only agree that modernisation, in the context that was applied to justify elimination of identities rather than illuminate, is part of biological evolution overall and is not man's invention. TEK ('Traditional Environmental Knowledge') is already taking care of modernising all aspects of human existence in one complete system we know as evolution. This extensive TEK system of indigenous People's heritage and accumulative wisdom, which modern scientists now seek for new insights, insures culture's continuation and inspires new inventions of material types, smart tools and even new human societies altogether; encompassing all aspects of human's existence. Yet despotic systems, in contrast, emphasise only one single aspect on the expense of all other aspects including the desecration of nature, polluting the environment, and feeding the earth with toxic waste. This reckless and temporary expression will not succeed in evolutionary terms because it violates long range perspective with which nature sees its future offspring thriving as
ever!






Given the fact that Berber mentality, their cheerful attitude to life, their customary egalitarian justice and tribal council of the
elders (both female and male transparent members of the society who could lead by example), and all the good and unique elements that distinguish Tamazight society from most of the warring ideals of the neighbouring and far distant countries may well become affected, and may even become infected with the new cultureless direction towards which the Berber society
may one day find itself led to -- something the Imazighen of today should be concerned with right now rather than shortsightedly endure later. If the Berbers loose their own cultural unique identity, as a Berber, one may no longer wish to remain a Berber, since there will be no one in essence.

To take away from indigenous people the values at the heart of their existence, rather than preserve their priceless world heritage, goes against all human ideals reverberating across the moral world. The Tuareg of the Sahara have also come under
the patriarchal hammer in the last decade or so, where they were forced to perform some patriarchal con-sessions, and even were pressurised to abandon a number of Tamazight matriarchal institutions including the "sacred matrilineal naming system".

Some nice landscapes to 'digest' all these information







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Re: ۩۩۞ Amazigh/Berber kings and history ۞۩۩

Post by wonderland20 on Fri Jun 15, 2012 1:00 am

In short, bravo Sassyyyy
Always learning with you
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Re: ۩۩۞ Amazigh/Berber kings and history ۞۩۩

Post by sassy86 on Fri Jun 15, 2012 3:52 pm

I'm really really glad that you're loving it (Tanmirt = Thank you )
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Re: ۩۩۞ Amazigh/Berber kings and history ۞۩۩

Post by sassy86 on Fri Jun 15, 2012 10:13 pm

Hi again ! Smile Let us continue with types of Berber and the geographical distribution of Berbers

As a Berber, I'm often asked what does this and this mean and it's hard for people to understand that I don't understand all words simply because there are so many dialects and those words don't belong to the dialect I know.
Some of you may be Berber but don't understand the Amazigh news on the Algerian TV confused Don't panic that's normal !
Berber language in Algeria has varied dialects
throughout the country.


Linguistically, Berber belongs to the Afro-Asiatic group,
and has many dialects.
The three main dialects used in Morocco are Tachelhit, Tamazight and Tarifit.
Collectively, they are known as "shilha" in Arabic.


  • Tachelhit (sometimes known as "soussi" or "cleuh") is spoken in south-west Morocco, in an area between Ifni in the south, Agadir in the north and Marrakech and the Draa/Sous valleys in the east. I'm not sure of this info, but it seems there are some Berbers speaking Tacheldhit in Algeria.

  • Tamazight is spoken in the Middle Atlas, between Taza, Khemisset, Azilal and Errachidia. There are other declinations of Tamazight in the North and South of Algeria which tend to very.

  • Tarifit (or Rifia) is spoken in the Rif area of northern Morocco.
In January 2010 Morocco established its first Amazigh TV channel, broadcasting in the Tachelhit, Tarifit and Tamazight dialects.
Berber is not officially recognised in Morocco, though French (the old colonial language) is. Rolling Eyes





THE BERBER ALPHABET :


One think you should know is that the Berber alphabet called TIFINAGH is derived from the Punic alphabet, that is why you will find some similarities. Smile







GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF BERBERS


You ALL know that Berbers are scattered throughout different countries of northern Africa such as Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco. But DID YOU KNOW that there are Berbers in Egypt and The Canary Islands??? affraid

The Berbers of Egypt:

In ancient times, all Egypt west of the Nile was inhabited by Berbers, including the Delta itself and all the oases in the Libyan Desert. Today, the Berbers in Egypt are found only in Siwa, numbered at 30,000 people, and in the region of Beni Suef.


The Berbers of The Canary Islands:

Probably the most disastrous event in the Berbers' history in relation to European conquests is the terrible plight of the Berber
Guanche tribes of the Canary Islands. Unimaginable catastrophe. Sad They were completely isolated from the outside world, where they failed to appear in the history of the Berber and Arab writers of the time, and reportedly had no contact at all with the outside world until the Spanish conquerors arrived to embark on their systematic
genocide - an act that took nearly 90 years of savage slaughter to complete.

Those Berbers who hid in the sacred caves were slowly hunted to extinction like poor animals; the captured survivors however
were sadly sold as “first-class” slaves in Europe's aristocratic markets. Apparently, these strong and powerfully-built slaves had also ended up in North Africa as fellahs ('land workers').
Without anyone learning anything about them, they have gone extinct. They were forced not only to give up their beloved pride and hide in the prehistoric caves of the Canary Islands and see their own children and wives killed before their own tearful eyes, but also were forced to vanish off the surface of the earth.

Imagine, imagine, what it would be like today if the Berber Guanche civilisation remained so onto the present day - a true treasure from our prehistoric past where anthropologists (are) telling us they did not even know about the "wheel" -- the wheel that goes round on empty circle, the ouroboros wheel that eats itself to infinity!

In “Pre-Historic Civilization In The Philippines”, in the Far East, of course, Elsdon Best says:

Unfortunately, in the case of the Spanish conquests of the sixteenth century, that nation appears never to have
considered it a duty to hand down to posterity any detailed description of the singularly interesting races they had vanquished. As it was with the Guanches of the Canaries, the Aztecs of Mexico, and the Quichuas of Peru, so was it with the Chamorro of the Ladrones, and the Tagalo-Bisaya tribes of the Philippines.
” (Journal of The Polynesian Society, vol. 1,1892, p. 118).



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Re: ۩۩۞ Amazigh/Berber kings and history ۞۩۩

Post by sabine on Sat Jun 16, 2012 8:18 pm

wooooooooow hats off sassy for such an amazing topic I knew that berber does not mean savage or even free people but I didn't know about all these details. Berbers in Egypt and The Canary Islands????? I had never heart about it but thanks to you now I DO.
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Re: ۩۩۞ Amazigh/Berber kings and history ۞۩۩

Post by sassy86 on Sat Jun 16, 2012 9:18 pm

Ohhhh sweety !!!! I'm so glad that you loved it ! Yes there are many Berbers in the Canary Islands. I don't know if you have read the novel of Assia Djebar Femmes d'Alger dans leur appartements, at a given moment she speaks of Taos who lives in the Canary Islands and talks about the origins of Kabyles ...etc

P.S.:
I hope you're doing great in your exams. Wishing you the best luck sweety Can't wait when you'll have time to read and follow my Soledad Embarassed
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Re: ۩۩۞ Amazigh/Berber kings and history ۞۩۩

Post by sassy86 on Sun Jun 24, 2012 9:44 pm

Hi again! Now that you now some basic things concerning the term Berber, let's move on to the Berber kings Smile

Numidians kingdoms

During the third century, Carthage's power is reduced after first Punic war, lost against Rome and Numidians kingdoms were
formed. To the east, from the territory of Carthage to Ampsaga (current Oued El-Kebir), the kingdom massyle has for neighbor the kingdom masaesyle which stretches from Ampsaga until Mulucha (current Moulouya). From Mulucha to Atlantic, kingdom of Mauri completes this ancient Maghreb.In the pre-desert regions, Gaetulians lead a nomadic life. They occupy the vast steppe pre-Saharian territories between
Tripoli and the Atlantic. They are shepherds, successors of Bovidiens of and they go back to North each summer for the pastures. Gafsa is in getulian country. They also roam the desert and are in touch with the Garamantes living in the south of Libya, in the Fezzan, in the Tassil Ajjer and the Hoggar. Towards - 445, Herodotus describes a great nation
to ten days for journey west of the oasis of Augila (in Cyrenaica).
They dominate the race-track of caravans across the Sahara. These Berbers have formed a powerful confederation directed by a true king. The center of this confederation is located in the Wadi el-Agial (Fezzan), the former Zinchecra capital is (near Garam) and the "new" is near Oubari to Garama (current Germa). Herodotus also specifies us that Garamantes pursue troglodytes people who live in the Tibest rocks and in northern Chad. These Troglodytes form present confederation Toubous.





Map of massyle kingdom and carthaginian territory




          Bagrada (Medjerda) and over vast spaces until Tripolitaine, Leptis Magna is a part of it. This kingdom has a geographical unity, mountains and forests conducive to the breeding of cattle, Piedmont
          and open countrys allow the culture of cereals. Near Cartaginians, they profit some elements of their civilization.Thus, since forth century some cities exist as Dougga, Tebessa and Maktar Cirta. Towars - 310, a massyle king, Alyamas is contacted by Agatocle to enter in alliance against Carthage.
          Alyamas according Diodore de Sicile, provides him chariots, but before the end of war, he ceases to support Agathocle. At the center, masaesyle kingdom is much broader and covers 2 / 3 of the current Algerian coast more a part of Eastern Morocco. Their capital is Siga, near the mouth of Tafna.

          On the West, kingdom of Maures stretches up to Mogador island and up to Atlas. Relations with Phoenician cities as Lixus make penetrate Punic culture into the cities of inside. It is probably state the least centralized of three.


            Numidians and Punic Wars

          Massyles are good riders. During First Punic War, there are many naval battles exept fights in Sicily and roman landing in Africa. In these fight, Libyans are recruted, for example when carthaginians vessels take them at the battle of Aegates islands. Africans participate in Mercenary War of the mercenaries unpaids versus Carthage. Libyans as Matho and numidians having fought in Sicily are many among the rebels, there are approximately 20 000 Africans. Hamilcar fight them by using moors riders and especially Numidians particularly prince Navaras and his 2 000 riders.







King massyle Gaia




          During the second Punic War, the king of Massyles Gaia and the king of Masaesyles Syphax support Carthaginians but Syphax play the balance of booth powers to free himself from carthaginian supervision and practice double game. Hannibal uses on his army of many heavy foot soldiers and
          many numidians riders. These last one are often at work, as well against the Gauls who want Hannibal prevent from crossing the Rhone and in the Tessin battle, these riders wrap the trapped legionaries. appenins crossing is difficult for carthaginian army and Hannibal takes care closing the march with these numidians riders who control incertain Gauls and collect belated. At the battle of Cannae, numidian riders take a part of legion's confinement, while false switcher numidians take heavy triarii to setbacks. Mutines and numidian riders practice an efficace guerrilla in Sicily until Hanno jaleous of his success, whitdraw him the command. In Iberia, numidian riders form left wing of Hasdrubal army versus Scipio brothers at Tortosa battle in - 215. After this defeat, Rome attract in his camp, Syphax, the king of Masaesyles which activates a revolte against Carthage and gains a victory against Punics.

          But Gaia, the king of Massyles is allied to Carthaginians and he makes war against Syphax which is supported by Rome. In 206, Gaia dies then his successor Oezalces. Capussa ascends the throne but he was quickly challenged by his cousin Meztul. The latter, supported by Syphax, is victor in the battle where Capussa perishes. He puts on the throne Lacumazes, an usurper with the support of Cathage. Massinissa who is evicted, is in Iberia. He goes quickly in Mauritania and asks for the help of Baga, king of Moors, who supplies him 4 000 horsemen' escort, to the his territory's limits.There, Massinissa gathers 500 horsemen among his supporters and attacks. He tooks first in Lacumazes near Thapsus where he lays an ambush for him He is victor but Lacumazes can flee.These win assures him supporter's flux.
          But Matzul and Lacumazes, helped by Syphax, gather 10 000 horsemen and 15 000 infantrymen against him. With a smaller army, Massinissa wins by a frank way and Matzul and Lacumazes take refuge in Carthage. He settles in Thapsus and fight efficiently against Carthage which sends Hasdrubal Gisco to Syphax to encourage him to make war against their enemy. As Massinissa calls to the union of all Numidians, Syphax attacks and routs him then he annexes a part of massyle's kingdom. Massinissa takes refuge in the mountains with same supporters and although proscribe, harries his ennemies and insecurity reigns in the carthaginian country. Whatever the means used by Carthage ans Syphax agains him, he always appears against Syphax. He become popular among his own and can reconquer his kingdom. Roman general Scipio discharges Massiva, the nephew of Massinissa who whithout
          the knowledge of Carthaginians, meets the Roman to thank him. Massinissa is ready to support Scipio in Africa especially since Carthaginians have "turned" Syphax by giving Sophonisbe, Hasdrubal's daughter. Syphax abandons roman alliance and his army is hevy in the last stage of conflict which is going to take place in Africa.

          But, in - 204, Scipio lands near Utica whom he besieges immediatly. Syphax's army (60 000 soldiers) makes him raise the siege, however Scipio surprises numidian army by night, burning their tents and puts out of service many numidians fighters. Carthage received mercenaries and tries his luck in the pitched battle of the Great Plains. Scipio by putting his three legionnarie's rows on the same line gains a big victory. When Syphax is captured during a battle between Massyles and Masaesyles who is won at the last minute by Massinissa owing to legionnaries'intervention. An individual fight sets bothe
          numidians leaders and Massinissa throws his javelin on Syphax and reachs only his horse which collapses. Massinissa takes back Cirta whom Romans conquered in - 203 and extends towards the towns of Masaesyles kingdom which have undergone the same fate. His kingdom soon extends
          from Moulouya to Tusca (near current Tabarka). Carthaginian power quickly begin negotiations. Meanwhile, the "patriots" called Hannibal, which is still in the south of Italy. He land at Leptis Minor, rejected the peace proposed by Scipio. He comes into contact with Vermina, the son of Syphax. Hannibal meet Scipio to soften peace's conditions, it is a failure. The Battle of Zama
          (near current Maktiar) is inevitable. In mid October - 202, Carthaginian elephants are neutralized face Roman regions that make up "corridors" where the pachyderms are sinking and are frightened by the tones of trumpets and lining their own army. Scipio's cavalry reinforced by 4 000 horsemen of Massinissa exceeds that of Hannibal and pursues it while the mercenaries cooperate bad with Carthaginians. Scipio encircle Hannibal's army when his cavalry comes back in contact. Punic army is crushed. Hannibal escapes with few horsemen after a duel against Massinssa. The conditions for peace are more harsh. Carthage loses its fleet, its elephants, its territory iberian territory and management of
          its foreign policy submitted to Senate in Rome. Syphax dies in captivity in Rome while Massinissa recover his massyle kingdom and the most fertile part of masaesyle kingdom. Indeed, Rome thanks Massinissa for his help, salutes him by title of king and also uses him to control Carthage. This fallen power saw its territory limited and must return to Massinissa, all territories that formerly owned the ancestors of this Numidian king.







Massinissa, the Berber king in -
201






Massinissa the great Aguellid


        In - 201, Massinissa governs since Cirta which becomes a city, a kingdom which he extends constantly by taking territories against Carthage which may not ripost. First Rome is not interested to weaken Carthage too much and Scipio "protects" this city, numidian king's winnings are restricted. But from about - 167, Rome leads a much more hostile policy and Scipio is not there. This attitude of Rome comes from the spectacular recovery that Carthaginian economy knows. And during 60 years, Massinissa, big Aguellid, ameliorates agriculture by introducing in new instruments and new cultures. The kingdom earned new
        lands favourable to these plans, Massinissa transforms many Berbers nomadic into cultivators while royal domains are emphasized. Strabon and Polybe represent this transformation. Cirta is not the only city of Numidia massyle, Thubursicu (Khemissa), Thibilis (near Guelma), M'daourouch (Madaure on Roman colonization's time and near Boumerdas today). Numidia trades with Mediterranean Sea and becomes a granary for the Roman armies in campaign. This sedentarization of Numidians leads to another
        consequence. " Getules who live in steppes in the High Lowlands, will watch for immobile prey which will
        constitute numidian peasants, in Massinissa and his successors' time. " (Charles André Julien)

        Massinissa also sends riders and elephants to support the war roman effort by example during the 2nd Macedonian war. He takes advantage of the departure of Hannibal to encroach on the Carthage's territory.
        Toward - 190, the consul L. Minucius is encircled in a pass in Liguria, he saves his army by sending 800 numidian riders to gorges occupied by the enemy. And as written Frontin, riders "pretended to tumble down of their horses, and to make an spectacle of himself. The enemy releasing its vigilance, withdraws troops from his posts to watch the show and numidian riders seize of the opportunity to escape and burn down
        neighbouring villages and to force Ligurians to run to defend their property and release their pressure on the legionnaries."

        Massinissa has an army and a fleet at one's disposal. His clear aim is to unify North Africa from the Moulouya to Syrtes, with Carthage as its capital and then submit the Mauretania. But defeated Carthage raises one's head. It is on the development of their African territory (the only territory remaining) that the Carthaginians carry their effort. Massinissa claims anything that his ancestors had owned of the Carthaginian terrotory and Rome turned a deaf ear to complaints from Carthage. In - 174, Massinissa reveals secret talks between Carthage and Perseus, when the third macedonian war begins and takes advantage to take seventy cities or fortresses from the Punic Zeugitane, including Leptis Magna and Thysca.

        Massinissa also sends horsemen and elephants to support the roman war effort for instance during the 2nd Macedonian war. He takes advantage of the departure of Hannibal to encroach on the territory of Carthage. Towards - 190, the consul L. Minucius surrounded in a pass in Liguria, saves his army by sending 800 numidian horsemen towards throats occupied by enemy. And as writes it Frontin, the horsemen " simulate to fall of their horses, and gave themselves in show " The enemy relaxing his vigilance, withdrows his posts to watch the show and numidian hordemen take the opportunity to escape and burn down neighbouring boroughs and forcing Ligurians to run to defend their property and relax their pressure on the legionnaries."

        Massinissa has an army and a fleet. His evident purpose is to unify North Africa from Moulouya to Syrtes, with Carthage as chieftown and to submit the Mauretania. But Carthage conquered holds his head. It is on the enhancement of african territory (the only one left) that the Carthaginians carry their effort. Massinissa claim all that his ancestors had possessed of the carthaginian territory and Rome turned a deaf ear to complaints of Carthage. In - 174, Massinissa reveals secret talks between Carthage and Perseus, when the third macedonian war will begin and seizes seventy punic cities or strongholds in the Zeugitane including Leptis Magna and Thysca. Carthage calls to the Senate, stable borders but Massinissa remains free to continue his annexations. On the contrary, to reward for assistance in his war against Macedonia,
        Rome allows Massinissa in - 162, to claim the fertile lands of Emporia and capture the ports of large Syrte. Rome justify the annexation. In - 153, Aguellid become master of the Great Plains' territory (the Dakhla
        or Campi Magni). Of course, this mission has no suite. At Carthage, a party for Massinissa exists but the situation becomes uncertain, Hamilcar and Carthalo the Samnite are hunting the suspects and city arms itself. But negotiations are still under threat. Meanwhile, Carthage does not suffer more numidian pressure and declares war on Massinissa in - 150. An army of 50 000 fighting mes is conquered near Vaga (current Beja), by Numidians driven by their Aguellid, on horseback, 88 years old!



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Re: ۩۩۞ Amazigh/Berber kings and history ۞۩۩

Post by sassy86 on Mon Jul 09, 2012 9:31 pm

Hi mates Smile Let's continue and get to know another part of Berber history and probably one of its most influential kings... Jugurtha

The End of Carthage



The result of Punic reaction is the dispatch by Rome of both consuls and four legions in Africa in - 149. Rome uses the
plight of his rival and also refuses to let Massinissa conquer Carthage. Begin requests required in the form of an ultimatum : the 300 hostages and all weapons and all the fleet which are delivered. Finally, once disarmed Carthage, is the final point:

"Go and build another city at 80 stadiums (about 14,2 kilometres) at least of the sea. We have order to destroy Carthage !"

So stiffen Carthage, Rome shows that she wants the death of its economic rival. Proponents of the negotiations are eliminated, the general mobilization and time again Carthage was again in a state of defense when consuls finally decide to attack. Carthage produced each day, 140 shields, 300 swords, 500 spears, catapults 1000 traits. Then
legionnaries attack, they are repelled.

The two consuls Manilius and Censorinus have hoped for a voluntary surrender, they are disappointed and take it badly. Massinissa don't comply with roman request to participate in the offensive against Carthage. Moors arrived as reinforcements for Carthage. Legionaries who collect firewood to make the siege engines are destroyed by the cavalry punic. The seat settles for longtime. Caton in - 149, then Massinissa in - 148 die without seeing the end of the seat. And pugnacity of the
defenders hold the Roman techniques of seat in check. Scipio was sent in Africa to organize the succession of Massinissa. He shares power between his three sons.

Micipsa
the elder receives civil service and the chief town, Gulussa commands the army and Mastanabal directs Justice.

Scipio sees the situation of Carthage which improves and he succeeds inavoiding disaster by supporting consul Manilius surprised by Hasdrubal near Nepheris. In - 148, new consuls Calpurnius Pison and Hostilius Mancinus do not succeed better and Scipio is elected consul before the age and he takes back the seat and tips up in his camp, Phameas Himilcon the general of carthaginian cavalry and 2 200 horsemen. The wall is nearly intact after two years of seat ! Scipio decides to
isolate Carthage completely, what did not attract the previous consuls.
And he succeeded, despite the impressive mobilization of carthaginian population, in cutting the isthmus, the harbor entrance, in destroying Nepheris'army and in defeating the Moors who came as reinforcements. This is the end of the year - 147. Spring - 146, Scipio's consulate is extended, the attack is launched from the outer harbor that legionaires
occupy. Carthage is exhausted but a terrible street fighting begins in the buildings and Scipio decides to burn down the city. However resistance lasts another 6 days. Resistance ceases. Cities that have remained loyal to Carthage are razed as Hippo Darius (Bizerte), but the oldest cities: Utique, Hadrumete, Thapsus, Leptis Minor, Acholla, Usul and Theudalis have rallied in Rome and have the status of free city.

The territory where Rome takes and which is restricted by Fossa Regia, corresponds according to Charles André Julien to the third North is from actual Tunisia that is less 25 000 square kilometres. Colonization
will for a long time put to start owing to conflict the patricians and the proponents of plebeians. Colonization will start in a long time because of the conflict between the patricians and the proponents of plebeians. The first attempt launched settlements in - 121 by the Gracchi was torpedoed by a coup d'état. When this region becomes productive, it will supply mainly wheat purchased primarily by a farmer society for the roman state. Veterans of Marius occupied lots, prosperity was feeble and the colony was abandoned in the early 1st century. It is from Julius Caesar, the Colonia Julia Carthago was rebuilt according to the Roman model.


In Numidia, circa - 138, Micipsa stayed alone in power after the death of his brothers, follows the task of his father, develops cities and embellishes Cirta. Vaga (Beja) and Bulla Regia (near Souk el-Arba) become cities. Numidians and their Western neighbours Maures, perpetuate Punic culture, and Rome, after the destruction of Carthage, symbolically gave to Numidia, contents of the Punic libraries which had avoided final fire. Micipsa remains a faithful ally of Rome and during
the long seat of Numance (-134 - 133), he sends to Scipio Emilien, a contingent ordered by one of his nephews, the illicit son of his brother Mastanabal. It is Jugurtha who makes very good impression on the Roman general.



The rise of Jugurtha










On the death of his brother Mastanabal, Micipsa gives his son Jugurtha at home and rears him as his sons in Cirta. He becomes very clever on horseback, in the javelin and starts to learn about Greek philosophy. Towards - 120, to soften him and undoubtedly influenced by Scipio Aemilianus, Micipsa adopts his nephew and he gives him the same
rights as his own sons Adherbal and Hiempsal. On the death of Aguellid, in - 118, reports being detestable between the 3 heirs, no distribution is envisaged except royal treasures and hostilities begin. Rome is not discontented with this division at the head of this powerful kingdom. But fast, Jugurtha makes slaughter Hiempsal in Thirmida. Supported by the elite of the army, he occupies cities and subdues the Numidia. Adherbal, the elder, sure of his numerous army, tries to resist but a
single battle is enough for that Jugurtha drives him out of the kingdom. He takes refuge in Rome and asks for the help of the Senate in - 116.

A senatorial commission shares the kingdom and allocates to Adherbal the oriental part with Cirta for capital and to Jugurtha the richest, western part with Iol (Cherchell). No reproach is made to Jugurtha which distributed gold generously to the Senators. In - 113, suddenly, Jugurtha attacks the kingdom of his cousin until Cirta. Adherbal must fight to defend his kingdom. As said Salluste, both armies being in Rusicada, and Adherbal's is surprised in the
night and slaughtered, he takes refuge in Cirta and the seat begins. Adherbal succeeds in sending messengers in front of the Senate of Rome who shows no firmness.

It is true that the war against Cimbres and Teutons threatens !


It is the Italian colony who defends the city with energy and who recommends to Adherbal to capitulate, counting on greatness of Rome to protect them. But Jugurtha kills Adherbal and all male population, including Italians. War is declared in - 111 and the Senate sends consul Lucius Calpurnius Bestia at the head of the army of Africa. This time the active corruption in the Senate does not work and the Roman army, come by the Sicily, disembarks in Africa and takes some cities,
makes numerous prisoners and walk towards Bagradas (Medjerdah). He accepts the submission of distant cities and Jugurtha seems biddable. A modest fine is inflicted on the numidian king,
military operations cease, a treaty is signed and Jugurtha is called to Rome by Senate to find an agreement. Jugurtha goes to Italy and appears in front of the Senate where optimates and populares exactly oppose on the
future of Numidia.

The first represent patricians, are favourable to the maintenance of independent Numidia and does not want to risk an overseas war. Seconds supported by plebeians, consider Numidia as a possession of the Roman people. Jugurtha succeeds in manipulating these two factions, by corruption and intrigue. He succeeds even in eliminating Massiva, one of his cousins
which is ready to take the relay of Adherbal, in Rome. Jugurtha is evicted, the treaty is broken by the Senate. By leaving, Jugurtha would have thrown famous sentence, according to Salluste :

" Here is a city to be sold, intended to perish if any buyer could be found."

Operations start slowly. The consul Spurus Postumius Albinus orders an army of 40 000 men, unruly and in touch with the enemy. Jugurtha refuses to fight and pays the consul who must soon come back to Rome. It is his brother Aulus who aims the army currently. He decides to besiege Suthul in full winter to shorten conflict. It is there that is deposited Jugurtha's treasure. This place is difficult to take and soon, approaches of the city are wholly marshy. In spite of these difficulties, Aulus prepares the seat in a habitual manner in - 109. Jugurtha succeeds in corrupting the allied troops of Romans, and even the primipile of the third legion. Jugurtha and the army moves away from Suthul and draws away the Roman army so in an arid region. Then one night, he judges the favourable instant and attacks the Roman camp. Ligures and Thraces present pass in the numidian camp as well as some legionnairies and the primipile of the third legion lets enter the numidian army in the camp. The legionnaires run away, often without weapon, on a hill, the camp is looted and the following day, Aulus and the legionnaries pass under yoke. The treaty is renewed as wishes it Jugurtha, peace is concluded, the Romans have ten days to evacuate
Numidia

In Rome it is a scandal and the Senate breaks the peace treaty. But military operations are awaiting trials, Bestia and Albinus Spurius are condemned to exile. The war resumed with the appointment of Quintus Metellus who mistrusts the Africa's army, raises troops and chooses officers from people like Gaius Marius. He arrived and put in order these Africa'army so disorganized. In spring - 108, he enters in Numidian kingdom with the intention of bringing captive Jugurtha to Rome, but he remains quiet
about his intentions before the envoys of the numidian king. In the face of Jugurtha's hostility, he makes ready to fight. He takes Cirta and installs a garrison in the fortress of Vaga and continu his route. But Jugurtha prepars an ambush near a large river Muthul.

This time, Jugurtha changes his manners of fight. So far, his tactic is similar to the guerrillas, with cavalry charges sudden surprising legionaries, vanish into the wild when the resistance is high or when the panic wins, overwhelm. This time, Jugurtha wants to strike a big blow, he exhorts his soldiers as Sallust in Bellum Jugurthinum, described us:

"Then he begins to go, one by one, and squadrons manipules, urging the ward to remember their glorious past and their recent victory and defend their country and their king against the rapacity of the Romans."

"Jugurtha not remain inactive. It is found everywhere. Everywhere he urged his soldiers. It resumes the fight. Also at the head of his own, sometimes he flies to their rescue, and sometimes he attacked those of
us who are weak, sometimes he fights from afar fought whose who farm."

This is the battle in Muthul - 108. This is the name of a river who can be Oued Mellegue according to Stephane Gsell, or Oued Tessa, according to Charles Saumagne. Here, Jugurtha sets the bulk of his army in the valley where flows the river and 2 000 horsemen lock the way out after the last Roman warrior. But Metellus feels the trap and sends Rufus Rutilius and a troop of cavalry to set up a camp near the river, he climbs on a height, himself . When Jugurtha gives the signal of battle, all the Roman troops are beset by Numidians more numerous. Legionaries must vanquish, the battle lasted for hours. Then, the numidian infantry returns on the hill and the horsemen slow down the attacks. Troops of
Metellus climb on the hill and Numidians are fleeing, while the legionaires of Rufus eliminate or capture elephants of Bomilcar. Roman losses are heavy and Metellus could not replace them therefore he avoids the battle henceforth and adopts the tactic of scorched earth, while Jugurtha keeps at harassment Legionnaire isolated with a small group of horsemen elite.

Foragers are also strongly escorted. But Metellus want to attract Jugurtha and for this, attack and a major stronghold Numidian, Zama. Jugurtha strengthens the defense of the city and continues his skirmishes. During the attack fortifications, Jugurtha interposes but he is rejected. He does it again with hit foot soldiers mixed with horsemen who don't retreat after a charge. Metellus his side cannot take the city. He abandons the siege, strengthens the garrisons, goes to Carthage and makes its winter quarters in Africa. Marius during this time is in Rome to be elected consul for the year - 106.

The consul Marius recruits new troops and auxiliaries at the allies. He has to do better than Metellus whom he denigrated before the Senate.Spring - 106, he begins campaign, beginning with small operations without risk, against small towns or against Getuls. These operations are successful but not significant, Marius decides to take a important city and his choices are fixed on Capsa. He manages to capture the target by surprise and though the inhabitants give oneself
up, the population adult is massacred, others sold into slavery according Florus. The city was looted and burned. It works the same with other cities. Jugurtha, pursued by Marius, goes at his stepfather Bocchus and Marius and attacks a mountain called "Table Jugurtha", where he has hidden his treasures. Resistance was strong and the defense is easy as the position is abrupt. The place is taken through observation of an auxiliary ligurian who found a way to climb on the
tray.


The two battles on the road to Cirta

Jugurtha has convinced Bocchus to ally with him against the Romans by promising a third of his kingdom. So, when Sylla, a staff officer of Marius, returns with the horsemen which he has recruited and joins Marius bringing back his troops in their winter quarters, the legionnaries are suddenly surrounded by surplus of horsemen Moorish and Numidian at the end of the day. The attack was brutal and surprising enemy who is at first overflow then who copes forming the circle and settle on two hills whose strong position interrupts the fight. At daybreak, the legionnaires surprise Numidians and Moors on waking, in
silence and disorganized. They cause great losses.

Later, near Cirta, the two kings prepare another snare and muster four army corps as Salluste says, one composed of infantry, headed by Volux, son of Bocchus. While Sylla and his cavalry squadrons compact attack his opponents, infantrymen in Volux attack Roman rearguard. Meanwhile the bulk of the forces of Jugurtha, attack Marius who is head of the
legions. Then Jugurtha announces, near Bocchus, to the legionnaires that Marius died, by showing her sword covered with blood. A certain disorder is expressed on the Roman line, but before legionnaries are routed, Sylla which has just got rid of his adversaries, takes the Maures on the flank. Bocchus, withdraws immediately, Jugurtha, on the other hand, supports his soldiers and holds out but surrounded by Roman cavalry, his soldiers die and he ends up escaping. Marius during this
time triumphed over horsemen who made him face, can support his men and the Romans earn everywhere and pursue enemy
in retirement. Finally Roman army arrives at Cirta.

Numidie becomes a Roman "protectorate" managed by name by Gauda, the unhealthy stepbrother of Jugurtha, as shows it the inscription found in Thubursicum numidarum, until - 88. Hiempsal, the son of Gauda, brother
of Jugurtha, Hiarbas and Masyntha, probably one of both sons of
Jugurtha escaped from its captivity of Venuse. Also, the second son,
Oxyntas is present during social war near the Samnite Caius Papius
Mutilus.

These princes, Hiempsal and Hiarbas, quarrel over kingdom and roman generals take part in this conflict. On order of Sylla, Pumped support Hiemsal, whereas Gnaeus Domitius Aenobarbus protects Hiarbas. These are completely undone near Utique where Ahenobarbus dies. Hiarbas perishes shortly after in Bulla on order of Pompey. In - 81, disturbances seem
ended and Hiempsal II "governs" the biggest part of Numidia while Masyntha (called also Manasses), reigned only over a corner ignored of the country which is taken, some years afterwards, towards - 63, by Julius Caesar, who begins his political career.
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Re: ۩۩۞ Amazigh/Berber kings and history ۞۩۩

Post by princess smile24 on Mon Jul 09, 2012 11:52 pm

Hi Sassy86, I really congratulate you sister for your continuous efforts to inform us more and more. Let me tell you something my dear, that I really love foreign languages and I am glad to know more about the Tamazight language on this page. Good job girl, go ahead.
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Re: ۩۩۞ Amazigh/Berber kings and history ۞۩۩

Post by sassy86 on Tue Jul 10, 2012 1:35 pm

God bless you dear Smile Your wordsgo directly to my heart ! A new post is coming in Ramadan and that concerns culture. It will be kind of original Very Happy I hope you will like it Smile
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Re: ۩۩۞ Amazigh/Berber kings and history ۞۩۩

Post by sassy86 on Tue Sep 11, 2012 11:09 am



Hiempsal dies circa -60, his son Juba 1st succeeds him, is soon attacked at the same time by the tribune of Julius Caesar, Scribonius Curio and by Bocchus II, the king of Mauretania. He sends his lieutenant Sabura who is victor of mauratanian troops while he crushes Roman legions and captures Curio which is executed. To protect himself against Caesar, Juba supports the cause of Pompey. Defeated in the battle of Thapsus, he commits suicide under the walls of Zama in - 46.
Numidia becomes the province Africa Nova. Juba II is taken in captivity in Rome. He makes bright studies there and comes back to occupy the throne of his fathers in - 25, having married Cleopatre Selene, the daughter of Mark Antoine and Cleopatre VII. In - 17, Numidia romanized is annexed to Empire and becomes again Nova Africa while Juba II comes to Iol, (Cherchell) that he reappoints Julia Cesarea, to reign over Mauretania, Occidental Numidia and Getulia. Their son Ptolemy reigns from 24 to 40, date to which he is called in Rome and murdered.

It is the end of the independence of ancient North Africa. Roman domination practises directly on the part close to Mediterranean Sea on one depth varying from 50 to 300 kilometres. In the south of this zone, in nearness of the desert, the Nomads remain unsubdued. We have from the East to West: Garamantes, Getuls and Musulames.

Source: http://miltiade.pagesperso-orange.fr/GB/Ancient_North_Africa.htm

Next step, we'll move to the culture with all its aspects !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! bounce So excited about it !! bounce bounce bounce bounce
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Re: ۩۩۞ Amazigh/Berber kings and history ۞۩۩

Post by sabine on Wed Sep 12, 2012 4:11 pm

Always learning with you sassy. thank you for your precious posts. I can't wait to learn about the berber culture
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Re: ۩۩۞ Amazigh/Berber kings and history ۞۩۩

Post by sassy86 on Wed Sep 12, 2012 4:48 pm

My sweet doll is back ! Wanna learn some kabyle words Sabine ??? heheheh Who knows, you may ned them some day Wink lol
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