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parallel structure................help please

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parallel structure................help please

Post by gaby on Sun Dec 26, 2010 3:35 pm

hi mates
i need help in explaining the lesson of parallel structure in written expresion
parallal words . parallel phrases... parallel clauses........ parallel sentences ..... any thing related to that lesson please i need it today not tmw........................... i need it very soon please ................................. 3ab9our bka1 draheem drefdref
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gaby

Number of posts : 66
Age : 26
Location : el-eulma/setif/algeria
Registration date : 2010-10-29

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Re: parallel structure................help please

Post by mimi cici on Sun Dec 26, 2010 4:54 pm

Parallel structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. This can happen at the word, phrase, or clause level. The usual way to join parallel structures is with the use of coordinating conjunctions such as "and" or "or."

WORDS AND PHRASES

With the -ing form (gerund) of words:

Parallel: Mary likes hiking, swimming, and bicycling.
With infinitive phrases:

Parallel: Mary likes to hike, to swim, and to ride a bicycle.
OR
Mary likes to hike, swim, and ride a bicycle.
(Note: You can use "to" before all the verbs in a sentence or only before the first one.)

DO NOT MIX FORMS:

Example 1

Not Parallel:
Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle.
Parallel:
Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle.
Example 2

Not Parallel:
The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurate ly, and in a detailed manner.
Parallel:
The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and thoroughly.
Example 3

Not Parallel:
The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and his motivation was low.
Parallel:
The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and lacked motivation.
CLAUSES:

A parallel structure that begins with clauses must keep on with clauses. Changing to another pattern or changing the voice of the verb (from active to passive or vice versa) will break the parallelism.

Example 1

Not Parallel:
The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game.
Parallel:
The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game.
— or —
Parallel:
The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, not eat too much, and do some warm-up exercises before the game.
Example 2

Not Parallel:
The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that questions would be asked by prospective buyers. (passive)
Parallel:
The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that prospective buyers would ask him questions.
LISTS AFTER A COLON:

Be sure to keep all the elements in a list in the same form.

Example 1

Not Parallel:
The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and looking up irregular verbs.
Parallel:
The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and irregular verbs.


jouliya
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mimi cici

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Re: parallel structure................help please

Post by gaby on Sun Dec 26, 2010 5:02 pm

thanks alot ....................... i have some exercises i have not understood them well i will post them and i hope you can help me in them ...thanks jouliya
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gaby

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Age : 26
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Re: parallel structure................help please

Post by mimi cici on Sun Dec 26, 2010 5:06 pm


Parallel structure (also called parallelism) is the repetition of a chosen grammatical form within a sentence. By
making each compared item or idea in your sentence follow the same grammatical pattern, you create a parallel
construction.
Example
Not Parallel:
Ellen likes hiking, the rodeo, and to take afternoon naps.
Parallel:
Ellen likes hiking, attending the rodeo, and taking afternoon naps.
OR
Ellen likes to hike, attend the rodeo, and take afternoon naps.
Using Parallel Structure
With Coordinating Conjunctions
When you connect two or more clauses or phrases with a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but,
or, yet, or so), use parallel structure.
Example
Not Parallel:
My best friend took me dancing and to a show.
Parallel:
My best friend took me to a dance and a show.
With Correlative Conjunctions
When you connect two clauses or phrases with a correlative conjunction (not only…but also, either…or,
neither…nor, if…then, etc.), use parallel structure.
Example
Not Parallel:
My dog not only likes to play fetch, but also chase cars.
Parallel:
My dog not only likes to play fetch, but he also likes to chase cars.
OR
My dog likes not only to play fetch, but also to chase cars.
With Phrases or Clauses of Comparison
When you connect two clauses or phrases with a word of comparison, such as than or as, use parallel
structure.
Example
Not Parallel:
I would rather pay for my education than financial aid.
Parallel:
I would rather pay for my education than receive financial aid



jouliya
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mimi cici

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Re: parallel structure................help please

Post by mimi cici on Sun Dec 26, 2010 5:06 pm


With Lists
When yo

u are comparing items in a list, use parallel structure.
Example
Not Parallel:
John Taylor Gatto criticizes public schools because they are compulsory, funded
by the government, and destroy students' humanity.
Parallel:
John Taylor Gatto criticizes public schools because they are compulsory, governmentfunded, and normalizing.
OR
John Taylor Gatto criticizes public schools because they require students to attend,
receive money from the government, and destroy students' humanity
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mimi cici

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Re: parallel structure................help please

Post by mimi cici on Sun Dec 26, 2010 5:07 pm

U are most welcome,wish that we can help you Very Happy
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mimi cici

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Re: parallel structure................help please

Post by gaby on Sun Dec 26, 2010 7:35 pm

thanks alot ..... it seems that it is easier then i thought............ thank you dear ....
i'll post the exercises in new topic and i hope any one answer what he can
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gaby

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