Blida Department of English: Free Stand to Stand Free
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Post by $uenos on Sat Oct 09, 2010 12:43 pm

Literature is a form of human expression for the overall emotions, ideas, thoughts and concerns of the highest human methods ranging from written prose to prose to poetry Almnzawm weighted to open the doors for a person the ability to express what can not be expressed in another manner. Associated literature is closely linked to language Valnteg real language of the Code and the Code of Culture in this language will be kept within the forms of literature and its manifestations, which vary in different regions and eras and is always seen with variations and developments over the ages and times.
Definition of literature

Definition of the Arab

Among Arabs: the researcher can hardly find any text in the pre-Islamic era used the word «literature», and all what it finds is the word «Literature» meaning proposal to food, said blink:

We call Almstep Alajafly

Literature does not see us Intqr

In the Islamic era is done «Literature» meaning «prune», in the hadith of the Prophet peace be upon him «Correct me, Lord, and treats disciplinary», and finds some that the meaning of disciplining moral Such may have been common in pre-Islamic era, but there is no text supports this view. It seems that the metaphor has helped in the transition indication of word meaning perception, a call to the food to the meaning of a mental call to Makarem. And Idakhl the floor in the Umayyad period, a new meaning, as well as its meaning Althvebi congenita is the meaning of education, are used in reference to «Almwdben» They are a group of teachers who taught children of the caliph hair, speeches and language Arab News, and their genealogy and their days of ignorance and Islam. Has continued to combine the two meanings of discipline and education in the Abbasid period as noted in the book «the great literature, literature, small» Ibn Muqaffa. And «polite» of «Bureau enthusiasm» Abu Tamam, and «Book Literature» I'm Proud to. In general we can say that the word was released into the second and third centuries AD and the subsequent centuries to learn poetry the Arabs and their news, and the authors were Arabs classified books Inatunha as written literature such as «The statement of» the protruding (d. 255 AH), and «Eyes News» Ibn Qutaybah ( 276 v e), and «full of language and literature» for cooler (T e 285), and «unique contract» of Ibn Abd Rabbo (d. 328 AH), and «Flowers Arts» For exclusive (d. 453 AH).

Indeed, it is «not stand the meaning of this word when your destruction inflicted by the educational systems and prose and related salt and rarities, was sometimes widened to include all non-religious knowledge which humans live side of the social and cultural».

In this broad sense it finds a researcher with the Brethren of Purity [t] in the fourth century AH when they used in their letters to denote the magic science, chemistry, mathematics, commerce and transactions, as well as about the science of the Quran and the statement, history and news.

It appears that this broad sense was the basis for the Ibn Khaldoun [t] (v 808 e) in the launch of the word literature on all the knowledge, whether religious or secular, literature has what he sees as «not a subject of consideration in establishing Awardah or deny, but is intended when the people tongue fruit, a mastery of the art Almnzawm The Wallflowers on the methods of the Arabs and Menahihm. Then if they wanted a say this art literature is keeping poems, news, and the introduction of each science party ».

It should be noted that the word has been used since the third century AH, as well as their significance to the meanings that made reference to it, to signify the traditions that must be taken into account in a particular social group like a book or Alndme or ministers or judges, etc., and one can refer in this position to book «Literature Writer» Ibn Qutaiba and «Literature Nadeem» to Kcajm [t] (approximately in 350 AH), and others of books on literature and literature Judge minister and modern literature and literature of food, travel and other literature.

Since the beginning of the confrontation comprehensive Arab-European far-French campaign on Egypt, the word is used in modern Arabic to denote the corresponding word «literature« English, and «Littérature» French, as a result of cultural interaction which lived the Arab world in the last two centuries. It refers to the day «Literature» as one of the Fine Arts, six or seven different definitions and views and assertions, one which is observed by the Arab critics and historians of literature and Particle Suspension Flowing from the modern Arabs.

Definition of the Western

I used the word «Litteratura» «to Itrathura» derived from the Latin word «Littera» «Crafts» first used a translation of the word «grammatiké» «Gramteki» Greek, a knowledge of reading and writing. And soon after that used to denote the biases and literary culture. Vhicheron [t] qualified by the Kaiser when he mentions that he has a literature and a good sense of memory and reflection, and perseverance. In the second century AD, the word used to denote the «total of writing», as one finds both Tirtulan Tertullian and Cassian Cassian corresponds to the time between writing litteratura idolatry and the Bible Scriptura. It seems that the word in ancient times were generally used to denote the total Greek literature [t] and the history of literature, study and related knowledge.

Disappear and the word in this sense in the Middle Ages to the limited use of the word «to Itratos» «litteratus» of the know how to read and write.

Attached to the hair as grammar and rhetoric comprise the - with the logic - what is known of the three arts free. But the word would soon no longer with the Renaissance [t] to emerge. Notes the use of the word «to Tri - litterae» «ethics» often associated with Balsafp «humanae» as distinct from the sacred writings, or Balsafp «bonac» complimentary adjective. The sense in all the writings of Erasmus [t] Erasmus, and Rabelais [t] Rabelais, Woody Pellet [t] Du Bellay, and Montini [t] Montaigne, and others while using Dryden [R.] Dryden floor to talk about the «Arts good» good letters.

In the seventeenth century the term derives «Belles Lettres» «belletristic», it is suggested Charles Perrault Charles Perrault Colbert on Colbert to establish an academy includes a special section for «Belles Lettres» includes grammar and eloquence and poetry. It seems that this term was identical in connotation of the term «Humane Letters» letters humanies as contained in a dictionary Trifu Dictionnaire de Trevoux, which dates back to 1704, does not involve any of the signs is desirable that contained a recipe «belletistic» which today are used to denote excessive Tasting literature to the same recipient on the basis of subjective criteria without taking the cash or moral purposes or aesthetic values and artistic account. And quickly spread outside Francp French term, as used by Thomas Reimer Thomas Rymer in England in 1692, and becomes Hugh Blair Hugh Blair in 1762 the first professor of rhetoric and belletristic Belles Lettres at the University of Edinburgh.

He reads one in fact, the term «Literature» meaning literary culture or biases, or simply knowledge of classical languages since the first decades of the eighteenth century. For example, know the literature in the edition 1721 of the lexicon Trifu that «the doctrine, in-depth knowledge of the literature», and there is in the «Encyclopedia great» article signed JD any Jaucourt Le chevalier know the literature that the term «mean biases and knowledge of the Belles Lettres» or belletristic.

The English term is used in the same way will give birth Fjon John Selden archaeologist described as «a person with a literature has no boundaries», and Boswell [t] Boswell describes the Italian Giuseppe Baretti Giuseppe Barety as «Italian literature with a prominent». This use remained prevalent until the nineteenth century. Fjon Butram John Pethram compose a book in 1840 entitled «Planning for the progress of Anglo-Saxon literature at the present position in England» literature uses the word meaning the study of literature or knowledge.

Thus it is clear one that the term «literature» has been used since the beginning of the eighteenth century in the Europeanization of the sign of «total of Writing» body of writing although it is sometimes difficult to find a distinction is evident in the simultaneous use of all of «literary culture» and «biases» . The popularized this usage in both languages, French, Italian, German, English, and there are many examples in each of the books use the term in this sense, all of which refers to the «types of writing, all of those species characterized by the nature of biases such as history, theology, philosophy, and even the natural sciences». No significant narrowing of the term to refer to what we now call fantasy literature, imaginative literature (poem, story, play) in particular, but very slowly.

In a nutshell, the term «Literature» «literature» or «Arts» «letters» has been understood in antiquity and the Renaissance that includes all the writings of the kind that can lay claim to immortality. Did not emerge, but also very slowly in the eighteenth century, the view that there is an art of literature includes poetry and prose by a «fabrication fiction» imaginative fiction, and exclude information or even rhetorical persuasion, argument and educational, or historical narrative.

Have reinforced this concept discussions related to the idea of taste and the role of Taster, and the invention of Baumgarten Baumgarten of the term aesthetics aesthetics and his efforts with the «I» [t], especially in his latest book, «Critique of Judgement», to distinguish between the beautiful, good and true, and useful as well for the advancement of Slow to place the novel in European society, and led all in the end to the emergence of the concept of literature is parallel to the concepts of fine arts, music and other fine arts are known, and tomorrow, literature, and one of them among his six assume a prominent place.
[Edit] Prose

Consists of prose writing that is not committed to any particular formal structures (other than grammar) or is not writing poetry. Prose is simply writing about something without necessarily trying to be a beautiful way, or using beautiful words. Prose writing can of course take beautiful form with features not rhetorical beauty of words (rhymes, alliteration), but instead use the style, placement, or inclusion of graphics. There is one area of overlap is the "prose poetry", which is trying to convey the idea of information and using prose with only enrich the aesthetic model of the hair.

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